A novel missense mutation in the CLCN7 gene linked to benign autosomal dominant osteopetrosis: a case series
1 Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Regional Government, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq
2 Department of Hematology, Hiwa Hematology-Oncology Center, Kurdistan Regional Government, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq
3 Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Medical Center Ulm, Eythstr. 24, Ulm D-89075, Germany
4 Department of Histopathology, Shorsh General Hospital, Kurdistan Regional Government, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq
5 Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Regional Government, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq
Journal of Medical Case Reports 2013, 7:7 doi:10.1186/1752-1947-7-7Published: 9 January 2013
Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited genetic disease characterized by sclerosis of the skeleton. The absence or malfunction of osteoclasts is found to be strongly associated with the disease evolution. Currently, four clinically distinct forms of the disease have been recognized: the infantile autosomal recessive osteopetrosis, the malignant and the intermediate forms, and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, type I and type II forms. The autosomal recessive types are the most severe forms with symptoms in very early childhood, whereas the autosomal dominant classes exhibit a heterogeneous trait with milder symptoms, often at later childhood or adulthood.
Case 1 is the 12-year-old daughter (index patient) of an Iraqi-Kurdish family who, at the age of eight years, was diagnosed clinically to have mild autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. Presently, at 12-years old, she has severe complications due to the disease progression. In addition, the same family previously experienced the death of a female child in her late childhood. The deceased child had been misdiagnosed, at that time, with thalassemia major. In this report, we extended our investigation to identify the type of the inheritance patterns of osteopetrosis using molecular techniques, because consanguineous marriages exist within the family history. We have detected one heterozygous mutation in exon 15 of the Chloride Channel 7 gene in the index patient (Case 1), whereas other mutations were not detected in the associated genes TCIRG1, OSTM1, RANK, and RANKL. The missense mutation (CGG>TGG) located in exon 15 (c.1225C>T) of the Chloride Channel 7 gene changed the amino acid position 409 from arginine to tryptophan (p.R409W, c.1225C>T).
Case 2 is the 16-year-old son (brother of the index patient) of the same family who was diagnosed clinically with mild autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. We have identified the same heterozygous mutation in exon 15 of the Chloride channel 7 gene in this patient (Case 2). The missense mutation (CGG>TGG) located in exon 15 (c.1225C>T) of the Chloride channel 7 gene changed the amino acid position 409 from arginine to tryptophan (p.R409W, c.1225C>T).
In addition to the clinical diagnosis of both cases, the missense mutation we identified in one allele of the Chloride channel 7 gene could be linked to autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-II because the symptoms appear in late childhood or adolescence.
In this family, the molecular diagnosis was confirmed after identification of the same mutation in the older son (sibling). Furthermore, we detected that the father and his brother (the uncle) are carriers of the same mutation, whereas the mother and her sister (the aunt) do not carry any mutation of the Chloride channel 7 gene. Thus, the disease penetrance is at least 60% in the family. The mother and father are cousins and a further consanguineous marriage between the aunt and the uncle is not recommended because the dominant allele of the Chloride channel 7 gene will be transferred to the progeny. However, a similar risk is also expected following a marriage between the uncle and an unrelated woman. The p.R409W mutation in the Chloride channel 7 gene has not yet been described in the literature and it possibly has a dominant-negative impact on the protein.