Recurrent visceral leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report
1 Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Patras, Rion-Patras 26504, Greece
2 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Patras, Rion-Patras 26504, Greece
Journal of Medical Case Reports 2013, 7:68 doi:10.1186/1752-1947-7-68Published: 14 March 2013
Current treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis (pentavalent antimony, amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B and mitelfosine) achieve long-term clinical cure in the majority of immunocompetent patients. Disease relapse is usually provoked by T-cell number or function impairment (corticosteroid or cytotoxic therapy, transplant recipients, advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease).
We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis with multiple relapses in a 75-year-old Greek immunocompetent man. Visceral leishmaniasis relapses occurred despite appropriate treatment with liposomal amphotericin B 3mg/kg/day on days one to five, 14 and 21 (for the first episode and the first relapse) and mitelfosine 150mg/day for 28 days (for the second relapse). The third relapse was treated with high-dose liposomal amphotericin B (10mg/kg for two consecutive days), followed by a secondary prophylaxis of 3mg/kg once per month, which prevented disease reappearance during one year of follow-up.
An unusual case of recurrent visceral leishmaniasis in an older immunocompetent patient was treated with high-dose liposomal amphotericin B and a monthly prophylaxis with no evidence of a relapse after one year of follow-up.