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Open Access Case report

Laser therapy treatment of phacomatosis pigmentovascularis type II: two case reports

Koji Adachi*, Shinji Togashi, Kaoru Sasaki and Mitsuru Sekido

Author Affiliations

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan

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Journal of Medical Case Reports 2013, 7:55  doi:10.1186/1752-1947-7-55

Published: 27 February 2013

Abstract

Introduction

Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis is a rare congenital condition characterized by vascular malformation associated with extensive pigmented nevi. Even though it forms a large, prominent skin lesion, therapy for phacomatosis pigmentovascularis is rarely discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of phacomatosis pigmentovascularis type II treated with combined laser therapy using Q-switched alexandrite and long-pulsed dye lasers.

Case presentations

In the first of two cases reported here, a 2-week-old Japanese baby girl was given a diagnosis of phacomatosis pigmentovascularis type II and Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome because of port-wine stains, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, and aberrant Mongolian spots over her trunk and limbs. After five laser therapy sessions under general anesthesia, her aberrant Mongolian spots and port-wine stains have improved. But interestingly, the cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita on the patient's back has improved without laser therapy.

In the second case, a 4-month-old Japanese baby boy was referred to us because of port-wine stains, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, and aberrant Mongolian spots over his face, trunk and limbs. Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis type II was diagnosed and laser therapy was started. After three laser therapy sessions under general anesthesia, the aberrant Mongolian spots and port-wine stains have improved. The cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita on the baby's back, buttocks, and arms has faded somewhat without laser therapy.

Conclusions

Combined laser therapy improved the phacomatosis pigmentovascularis skin lesions, but was not effective for the cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita with hemiatrophy. Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita without atrophy can be expected to improve on its own. Our results will assist physicians considering how best to treat patients with phacomatosis pigmentovascularis.

Keywords:
Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita; Laser therapy; Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis