Pure choriocarcinoma of the testis presenting with jaundice: a case report and review of the literature
1 Department of urology, Hospital University Center Hassan II, Fez, 30000, Morocco
2 Department of pathology, Hospital University Center Hassan II, Fez, 30000, Morocco
3 Anatomy Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Fez, Fez, 30000, Morocco
4 Department of Urology, Reinier de Graaf Gasthuis, P.O. box 5011, 2600, Delft, GA, The Netherlands
Journal of Medical Case Reports 2012, 6:269 doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-269Published: 31 August 2012
Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men 15- to 35-years-old. The North American standard classification divides testicular cancers into germ cell tumors and non-germ cell tumors. The lymphatic spread of germ cell tumors usually involves the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. However, this spread to the retroperitoneum rarely involves the hepatic hilum. We describe an unusual case of metastatic choriocarcinoma of the testis that was clinically mimicked by a cholestatic jaundice. This is an unusual presentation of testicular cancer and, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of this kind in the literature.
A 28-year-old Moroccan man presented with a four-week history of progressive obstructive jaundice, and weight loss to our emergency department. Abdominal ultrasound showed a dilatation of the biliary ducts due to pathologically enlarged lymph nodes of the hepatic hilum. A complete clinical and radiologic assessment to discover the primary tumor was negative except for pulmonary metastasis. In the laboratory findings at admission there were signs of cholestasis with an abnormal increase in the rate of testicular tumor markers (serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level was 11,000IU/ml), which subsequently led to the suspicion of a testicular tumor. Further evaluation included testicular palpation and ultrasound which revealed a testicular nodule. The patient underwent an inguinal orchidectomy of the right testis and histopathological examination confirmed a pure choriocarcinoma. The prognosis was poor due to lymph node involvement at the hepatic hilum. He died one month later, despite general chemotherapy.
The clinical presentation of the disease and the rarity of this entity are two remarkable characteristics described in this case report which are rarely reported in literature.