Hepatitis C virus infection in a child with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2: a case report
Pediatric Endocrinology & Diabetes Unit -Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
Journal of Medical Case Reports 2012, 6:221 doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-221Published: 27 July 2012
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 is a rare disorder. Its prevalence in western populations has been reported as 1.5 to 4.5/100,000. On the other hand, its prevalence in Egypt is unknown. It is characterized by the association of autoimmune Addison’s disease with thyroid autoimmune diseases and/or type I diabetes mellitus. Hepatitis C virus infection is an important public health issue worldwide. Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection of any country in the world. It is estimated to be 8% in urban and 25% in rural areas. We present the case of an Egyptian child with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 associated with chronic hepatitis C infection.
A 14-year-old Egyptian boy with type 1 diabetes mellitus was referred to our institution for an evaluation of recurrent attacks of hypoglycemia of two months duration. The initial clinical examination revealed hypotension as well as vitiligo of the skin. He had high potassium, low sodium, low cortisol, high adrenocorticotropic hormone, slightly high thyroid stimulating levels with strong positivity of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies. The hepatitis C antibody and hepatitis C virus–polymerase chain reaction were positive. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 with chronic hepatitis C was made. He was started on hydrocortisone (10mg twice daily), fludrocortisone (0.1mg twice daily) and multiple daily doses of insulin. He showed great improvement of his symptoms on the prescribed treatment.
The importance of the early diagnosis of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 and the possibility of its association with chronic hepatitis C infection should be considered in order to implement the proper management of such cases.